Folder structure for Golang on development machines.
30th November 2015
Why does it matter?
Many development tools don’t care how you organise your folders. Go is not one of them.
If your folders are not quite right, things don’t build. Or they don’t place dependencies in sensible places. Or
go install doesn’t put your built binaries in a helpful place. Or [insert other bad stuff here].
The $GOPATH variable.
Before continuing, you should be aware that Go will not build anything without a $GOPATH environment variable [not quite true anymore, but still advisable anyway]. It uses this as a top level folder for:
- finding source code subfolders
- downloading packages (
- linking in fetched packages
- knowing where to place install binaries
I’m on a Mac and so everything that follows is OSX-specific. However, the principles are the same on Linux. If you’re doing Go development on Windows then I’d suggest you get a Linux VM and use that instead (Linux Mint is especially good).
The folder structure.
Obviously the repository providers, account names and code folders will vary.
/home/karl/Documents /GoLang /bin /pkg /src /bitbucket.org /kcartlidge /project1 /project2 /github.com /kacartlidge /project3 /project4
Making life easier.
When I follow this pattern, I also update my Terminal preferences to run the following command on start:
This is in the Terminal, Preferences, Shell option.
Step by step.
- Create the folder structure first, down to the account name for your repositories (e.g.
kacartlidge), but don’t create project subfolders.
- Run a
git clonecommand in the account name folder and a project subfolder will be created for the code you pull down.
- In your project folder run
go getand the Go compiler will fetch all dependencies into the same src folder tree your own code sits in, and will also populate the pkg folder as needed.
- In your newly-cloned project subfolder run either
go installto build a binary. The former will place the executable in the project folder and the latter into the
binfolder near the top of your folder structure.
Regardless of your project,
go install will always place the generated binary in the same
$GOPATH/bin subfolder. You can therefore make that folder available everywhere so you can get access to your own binaries from any command prompt. The easiest way to do this is to update your list of paths:
sudo vi /etc/paths
Just add the
$GOPATH/bin to that file and restart your Terminal session.
In Linux or Windows you can get a similar outcome by updating your system
PATH environment variable.